Non-native fish species in heated lakes: Origins and present status          [RESEARCH ARTICLE]

  • Andrzej Kapusta
  • Elżbieta Bogacka-Kapusta
Keywords: aquaculture, fisheries, introduction, invasion, pathways


This paper discusses the problem of the occurrence of non-native fish species in a strongly transformed aquatic ecosystem. The changes in this ecosystem are caused by warm water discharges from two electric power plants. Twelve non-native fish species are confirmed to occur in the system of five heated lakes located in central Poland. In total, 30% of the total number of non-native species confirmed in Polish inland waters were noted. Aquaculture and fisheries are the primary sources of non-native species in these lakes. Among the species identified, most reached the lakes or canals by escaping from farming facilities or through commercial stocking. Four species have established stable populations. Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel), Carassius gibelio (Bloch), and Carassius auratus (L.) are invasive species that occur abundantly in all the lakes, while Cyprinus carpio L. reproduces irregularly and only in the most heated lakes. The remaining species do not reproduce in the heated lakes system, or anywhere else in Poland; still, the threat these species pose must not be underestimated.


A. Kapusta [+]
Department of Hydrobiology
Inland Fisheries Institute in Olsztyn
ul. Oczapowskiego 10, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Tel: +48 895241039; e-mail: