Adaptation of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) to formulated diets: A review

  • Kamyar Javid Rahmdel
  • Bahram Falahatkar
Keywords: Digestive ontogeny, Formulated diets, Live food, Percids, Weaning


Pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L.) is a valuable species that is in high demand among consumers due to its nutritional features such as delicious meat, white and soft texture and lack of intermascualr bones. The main barriers in the development of pikeperch aquaculture are the challenges of its larviculture. A major problem in the larval period is that pikeperch must feed on live food, which imposes high costs on producers. Therefore, substituting live food with formulated diets is necessary, but this process cannot be performed easily and it requires an action plan to be successful. The aim of this study was to provide a brief overview of different aspects related to pikeperch nutrition including its natural feeding habits, nutritional requirements, digestive tract ontogeny, and the most common live foods used in pikeperch first feeding. Moreover, different weaning methods in pikeperch culture are provided to introduce an appropriate strategy to assist this fish in adapting to formulated diets.